Naturopaths near Sherman Oaks, CA

Photo of Jeremy Fischer, ND, LAc, Naturopath
Jeremy Fischer
Naturopath, ND, LAc
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403
Dr. Fischer treats a variety of chronic conditions. His passion is helping people recover from longstanding illnesses. Conditions treated include but are not limited to: * Gastrointestinal issues such as IBS, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease * Neurological conditions, stroke, multiple sclerosis * Heart disease, Atherosclerosis * Diabetes * Pain syndromes * Arthritis * Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue syndrome * Menstrual irregularities * Infertility (male and female) * Thyroid disorders * Mood disorders, including depression and anxiety * aging Please note this list is not exhaustive. If you have a health concern, chances are we can help you. Feel free to call for a free consultation.
Dr. Fischer treats a variety of chronic conditions. His passion is helping people recover from longstanding illnesses. Conditions treated include but are not limited to: * Gastrointestinal issues such as IBS, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease * Neurological conditions, stroke, multiple sclerosis * Heart disease, Atherosclerosis * Diabetes * Pain syndromes * Arthritis * Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue syndrome * Menstrual irregularities * Infertility (male and female) * Thyroid disorders * Mood disorders, including depression and anxiety * aging Please note this list is not exhaustive. If you have a health concern, chances are we can help you. Feel free to call for a free consultation.
(347) 650-3710 View (347) 650-3710
Photo of Elliot Anavim, ND, Naturopath
Elliot Anavim
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
Encino, CA 91436
Naturopathic physicians are trained as primary care providers who diagnose, treat and manage patients with acute and chronic conditions, while addressing disease and dysfunction at the level of body, mind and spirit. At Ascend Integrative Medicine, we concentrate on individualized patient wellness through health promotion and disease prevention, attempting to find the underlying cause of the patient’s condition. ​ we provide evidence-informed therapies that balance the least harmful and most effective approaches to help facilitate the body’s inherent ability to restore and maintain optimal health.
Naturopathic physicians are trained as primary care providers who diagnose, treat and manage patients with acute and chronic conditions, while addressing disease and dysfunction at the level of body, mind and spirit. At Ascend Integrative Medicine, we concentrate on individualized patient wellness through health promotion and disease prevention, attempting to find the underlying cause of the patient’s condition. ​ we provide evidence-informed therapies that balance the least harmful and most effective approaches to help facilitate the body’s inherent ability to restore and maintain optimal health.
(747) 232-2239 View (747) 232-2239
Photo of Simon Barker, ND, Naturopath
Simon Barker
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
Pasadena, CA 91104
Dr. Barker graduated from Bastyr University in Seattle and was an Associate Professor of Clinical Studies at the University of Bridgeport School of Naturopathic Medicine in Bridgeport, Connecticut. He was named Doctor of the Year by the California Naturopathic Doctors Association in 2015 and 2023. TV appearances include Veria's "Naturally Delicious," KVCR's "It's Your Call" and PBS' "American Health Journal" series about Naturopathic Medicine. Dr. Barker is a primary care doctor who treats both children and adults.
Dr. Barker graduated from Bastyr University in Seattle and was an Associate Professor of Clinical Studies at the University of Bridgeport School of Naturopathic Medicine in Bridgeport, Connecticut. He was named Doctor of the Year by the California Naturopathic Doctors Association in 2015 and 2023. TV appearances include Veria's "Naturally Delicious," KVCR's "It's Your Call" and PBS' "American Health Journal" series about Naturopathic Medicine. Dr. Barker is a primary care doctor who treats both children and adults.
(626) 656-3907 View (626) 656-3907
Photo of Josel Dauz, ND, Naturopath
Josel Dauz
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
West Los Angeles, CA 90025
Josel Dauz, ND, is a licensed Naturopathic Doctor in the state of California. Finding the root cause is a passion of Dr. Dauz, and she is devoted to giving her patients holistic, individualized, and compassionate care. Dr. Dauz believes in collaborating with her patients and carefully listening to their stories to find their wellness journey. She is trained in General Medicine with specialties in Women’s Health, Fertility, Pediatrics, Hormone balancing, Oncology support, Cardiovascular health, Genetic counseling, Functional Medicine, Anti-aging, Regenerative medicine/Pain management, Facial Rejuvenation, and Chinese Medicine.
Josel Dauz, ND, is a licensed Naturopathic Doctor in the state of California. Finding the root cause is a passion of Dr. Dauz, and she is devoted to giving her patients holistic, individualized, and compassionate care. Dr. Dauz believes in collaborating with her patients and carefully listening to their stories to find their wellness journey. She is trained in General Medicine with specialties in Women’s Health, Fertility, Pediatrics, Hormone balancing, Oncology support, Cardiovascular health, Genetic counseling, Functional Medicine, Anti-aging, Regenerative medicine/Pain management, Facial Rejuvenation, and Chinese Medicine.
(562) 414-5420 View (562) 414-5420
Photo of Danielle E Gran, ND, Naturopath
Danielle E Gran
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
El Segundo, CA 90245
Danielle E. Gran, ND is an integrative doctor specializing in hormone restoration therapy and naturopathic gynecology. She successfully treats a variety of women's health complaints including PMS, the menopausal transition, PCOS, infertility, abnormal Paps, vaginitis, adrenal dysfunction, thyroid disorders, and low libido. Her personalized approach blends ancient and traditional healing methods with cutting-edge, innovative therapies for optimal wellness and vitality. Feel rejuvenated by restoring your hormones naturally, and effectively!
Danielle E. Gran, ND is an integrative doctor specializing in hormone restoration therapy and naturopathic gynecology. She successfully treats a variety of women's health complaints including PMS, the menopausal transition, PCOS, infertility, abnormal Paps, vaginitis, adrenal dysfunction, thyroid disorders, and low libido. Her personalized approach blends ancient and traditional healing methods with cutting-edge, innovative therapies for optimal wellness and vitality. Feel rejuvenated by restoring your hormones naturally, and effectively!
(424) 397-1847 View (424) 397-1847
Photo of Mahboubeh Hashemi, ND, BCB, Naturopath
Mahboubeh Hashemi
Naturopath, ND, BCB
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90401
I'm a Licensed Naturopathic Doctor and Board Certified in Biofeedback. I practice based on Naturopathic Medicine's foundational principles and Functional Medicine's systematic approach to address your health concerns. I help to facilitate your own body's healing mechanism through understanding and addressing the root cause. I want this to be a mutually participatory process between us. I will be supporting you throughout your journey because together is always better and together is necessary. What I want for you is more than just absence of disease. I want you to cultivate resiliency -- resilience of the body and mind.
I'm a Licensed Naturopathic Doctor and Board Certified in Biofeedback. I practice based on Naturopathic Medicine's foundational principles and Functional Medicine's systematic approach to address your health concerns. I help to facilitate your own body's healing mechanism through understanding and addressing the root cause. I want this to be a mutually participatory process between us. I will be supporting you throughout your journey because together is always better and together is necessary. What I want for you is more than just absence of disease. I want you to cultivate resiliency -- resilience of the body and mind.
(424) 373-6856 View (424) 373-6856
Photo of Joy Bozzo, ND, Naturopath
Joy Bozzo
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90405
​Dr. Joy Bozzo is a licensed naturopathic doctor in the state of California, an alumnus to National University of Natural Medicine (NUNM) in Portland, Oregon, and a member of the Gastroenterology Association of Naturopathic Physicians (GastroANP) and Pediatric Association of Naturopathic Physicians (PedANP). She offers natural, holistic, and integrative medical care focused on children with autism, ADHD, developmental delays, PANS/PANDAS, and behavioral concerns.
​Dr. Joy Bozzo is a licensed naturopathic doctor in the state of California, an alumnus to National University of Natural Medicine (NUNM) in Portland, Oregon, and a member of the Gastroenterology Association of Naturopathic Physicians (GastroANP) and Pediatric Association of Naturopathic Physicians (PedANP). She offers natural, holistic, and integrative medical care focused on children with autism, ADHD, developmental delays, PANS/PANDAS, and behavioral concerns.
(619) 870-1275 View (619) 870-1275
Photo of Sara Kela, ND, Naturopath
Sara Kela
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Pasadena, CA 91101
I strive to help my patients get back into balance and ultimately optimize their health. I studied Biology at the University of California, Riverside and worked as a pharmacy technician. However, I felt like something was missing within the conventional field and explored other ways of healing. That is when I fell in love with Naturopathic Medicine. I then obtained my Doctorate degree in Naturopathic Medicine at Bastyr University. I have done advanced training in Intravenous nutrition and Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP) micro-needling. I specialize in gut conditions, women’s health, anti-aging and integrative medicine.
I strive to help my patients get back into balance and ultimately optimize their health. I studied Biology at the University of California, Riverside and worked as a pharmacy technician. However, I felt like something was missing within the conventional field and explored other ways of healing. That is when I fell in love with Naturopathic Medicine. I then obtained my Doctorate degree in Naturopathic Medicine at Bastyr University. I have done advanced training in Intravenous nutrition and Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP) micro-needling. I specialize in gut conditions, women’s health, anti-aging and integrative medicine.
(626) 714-2992 View (626) 714-2992
Photo of Matthew Cavaiola, ND, Naturopath
Matthew Cavaiola
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
Santa Monica, CA 90401
Hello - My name is Dr. Matthew Cavaiola. I am a naturopathic doctor who specializes in integrative oncology (cancer), hormonal imbalances (adrenal fatigue, thyroid, menopause, low testosterone) in both men and women and I use natural treatments for autoimmune disease, diabetes, heart disease, and low back, knee pain, shoulder pain, elbow pain, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Some of the treatments I offer in my practice including: functional medicine, IV nutritional therapy, high dose IV vitamin C, bioidentical hormone replacement, prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma therapy (PRP), nutrition and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Hello - My name is Dr. Matthew Cavaiola. I am a naturopathic doctor who specializes in integrative oncology (cancer), hormonal imbalances (adrenal fatigue, thyroid, menopause, low testosterone) in both men and women and I use natural treatments for autoimmune disease, diabetes, heart disease, and low back, knee pain, shoulder pain, elbow pain, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Some of the treatments I offer in my practice including: functional medicine, IV nutritional therapy, high dose IV vitamin C, bioidentical hormone replacement, prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma therapy (PRP), nutrition and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
(424) 338-0601 View (424) 338-0601
Photo of Ryan Namdarkhan, ND, Naturopath
Ryan Namdarkhan
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
West Hollywood, CA 90046
My ideal client is someone who is motivated to take charge of their health and is seeking a more natural approach to healing. They may be struggling with chronic health issues, digestive problems, hormonal imbalances, or stress and anxiety. They want to feel empowered and informed about their health, and they value a holistic approach that considers the mind, body, and spirit. Their goal is to achieve optimal health and prevent future health issues. By working together, we can create a personalized treatment plan that supports their unique needs and helps them achieve their health goals using naturopathic and functional medicine.
My ideal client is someone who is motivated to take charge of their health and is seeking a more natural approach to healing. They may be struggling with chronic health issues, digestive problems, hormonal imbalances, or stress and anxiety. They want to feel empowered and informed about their health, and they value a holistic approach that considers the mind, body, and spirit. Their goal is to achieve optimal health and prevent future health issues. By working together, we can create a personalized treatment plan that supports their unique needs and helps them achieve their health goals using naturopathic and functional medicine.
(323) 922-5804 View (323) 922-5804
Photo of Dorine Karlin, ND, LAc, Naturopath
Dorine Karlin
Naturopath, ND, LAc
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Los Angeles, CA 90066
My medical practice of over 20 years focuses on the treatment of the whole individual to stimulate the body's natural healing abilities. I have designed my practice as a nurturing environment where the physical, as well as the emotional, history lays the groundwork for treatment. Through this approach, I treat the cause of disease/illness rather than just the symptoms. Utilizing effective and appropriately individualized treatment methods, the patient is guided towards balanced health. The goal is to create optimal wellness by identifying and eliminating the stressors on a patient's system and supporting the body's physiology.
My medical practice of over 20 years focuses on the treatment of the whole individual to stimulate the body's natural healing abilities. I have designed my practice as a nurturing environment where the physical, as well as the emotional, history lays the groundwork for treatment. Through this approach, I treat the cause of disease/illness rather than just the symptoms. Utilizing effective and appropriately individualized treatment methods, the patient is guided towards balanced health. The goal is to create optimal wellness by identifying and eliminating the stressors on a patient's system and supporting the body's physiology.
(310) 359-8158 View (310) 359-8158
Photo of Jennifer Wicher, ND, PT, Naturopath
Jennifer Wicher
Naturopath, ND, PT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Marino, CA 91108
After completing medical school at Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and working for 10 years as a licensed physical therapist, I opened Synergy. My goal was to combine the best aspects of standard medicine with the benefits of natural and preventative medicine. Since then, I've treated many patients with all kinds of health problems - from simple colds and infections, to cancer and medical conditions that MDs have not been able to resolve. If you want a holistically-oriented primary care doctor who is ready to work with you and your family to improve your health and resolve or alleviate health problems, I can help you.
After completing medical school at Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and working for 10 years as a licensed physical therapist, I opened Synergy. My goal was to combine the best aspects of standard medicine with the benefits of natural and preventative medicine. Since then, I've treated many patients with all kinds of health problems - from simple colds and infections, to cancer and medical conditions that MDs have not been able to resolve. If you want a holistically-oriented primary care doctor who is ready to work with you and your family to improve your health and resolve or alleviate health problems, I can help you.
(626) 498-1270 View (626) 498-1270
Photo of Clement Lee, NMD, NMD, Naturopath
Clement Lee
Naturopath, NMD, NMD
Verified Verified
Pasadena, CA 91101
I strive to help people feel better and live better. My care looks beyond symptoms and toward the root of the illness. I treat patients, not simply diseases. I offer safe, effective, and natural therapies for restoring health and optimizing wellness. I treat patients with a variety of conditions, anywhere from diabetes, depression, anxiety, fatigue, to chronic infections and autoimmune conditions; helping to minimize the use of prescription drugs and stimulate the healing capacity of the individual. I have passion for helping those with chronic and acute pain overcome their injuries with regenerative injection therapies.
I strive to help people feel better and live better. My care looks beyond symptoms and toward the root of the illness. I treat patients, not simply diseases. I offer safe, effective, and natural therapies for restoring health and optimizing wellness. I treat patients with a variety of conditions, anywhere from diabetes, depression, anxiety, fatigue, to chronic infections and autoimmune conditions; helping to minimize the use of prescription drugs and stimulate the healing capacity of the individual. I have passion for helping those with chronic and acute pain overcome their injuries with regenerative injection therapies.
(626) 869-8946 View (626) 869-8946
Photo of Jennifer Abercrombie, ND, Naturopath
Jennifer Abercrombie
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
El Segundo, CA 90245
Are you struggling with: Brain fog & fatigue - Thyroiditis - Achiness - Insomnia - Anxiety - PMS - Hot flashes - Irregular menstrual cycles - PCOS - Mood swings - Depression - feeling Tired and wired - trouble Conceiving - difficult Postpartum - Lyme Disease - Mold Toxicity - EBV? Or do you just want to be as healthy as possible? Dr Jenny Abercrombie is committed to cultivating health from within, providing comprehensive care that restores & rebalances your body, creating long term solutions that fit your lifestyle, blending modern advances with traditional therapies, & providing high quality personalized health care.
Are you struggling with: Brain fog & fatigue - Thyroiditis - Achiness - Insomnia - Anxiety - PMS - Hot flashes - Irregular menstrual cycles - PCOS - Mood swings - Depression - feeling Tired and wired - trouble Conceiving - difficult Postpartum - Lyme Disease - Mold Toxicity - EBV? Or do you just want to be as healthy as possible? Dr Jenny Abercrombie is committed to cultivating health from within, providing comprehensive care that restores & rebalances your body, creating long term solutions that fit your lifestyle, blending modern advances with traditional therapies, & providing high quality personalized health care.
(719) 245-8024 View (719) 245-8024
Photo of Jasmine Talei, ND, Naturopath
Jasmine Talei
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Beverly Hills, CA 90210
Dr. Jasmine Talei is a California licensed Naturopathic Doctor treating breast implant illness, as well as other chronic diseases. Dr. Talei focused her clinical training on the skin-gut connection, autoimmune conditions, and mold-related illness. She currently also works with women and men to optimize their hormonal health and provides post-surgical naturopathic care. Her healing philosophy combines modern day testing, diagnosis, and evidence-based medicine, with modalities that have been around for centuries, including herbal medicine, homeopathy, nutrient therapy, nutrition, and craniosacral-bodywork therapies.
Dr. Jasmine Talei is a California licensed Naturopathic Doctor treating breast implant illness, as well as other chronic diseases. Dr. Talei focused her clinical training on the skin-gut connection, autoimmune conditions, and mold-related illness. She currently also works with women and men to optimize their hormonal health and provides post-surgical naturopathic care. Her healing philosophy combines modern day testing, diagnosis, and evidence-based medicine, with modalities that have been around for centuries, including herbal medicine, homeopathy, nutrient therapy, nutrition, and craniosacral-bodywork therapies.
(424) 360-2530 View (424) 360-2530
Photo of Dr. Reem Sharhan, ND, Naturopath
Dr. Reem Sharhan
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
Pasadena, CA 91101
Dr. Reem Sharhan is a licensed naturopathic doctor in California, with over 10 years of experience in science and medicine. Her focus is on managing hormonal imbalances (including irregular periods, thyroid, fertility issues), digestive conditions (such as IBS, IBD, SIBO), autoimmune disease, and supporting general women's health (cysts, UTIs, cystitis..). She offers a multidimensional specialty and her mission is to help clients connect the dots and address the root causes of their ailments.
Dr. Reem Sharhan is a licensed naturopathic doctor in California, with over 10 years of experience in science and medicine. Her focus is on managing hormonal imbalances (including irregular periods, thyroid, fertility issues), digestive conditions (such as IBS, IBD, SIBO), autoimmune disease, and supporting general women's health (cysts, UTIs, cystitis..). She offers a multidimensional specialty and her mission is to help clients connect the dots and address the root causes of their ailments.
(626) 790-2148 View (626) 790-2148
Photo of Dana Churchill, NMD, Naturopath
Dana Churchill
Naturopath, NMD
Verified Verified
San Marino, CA 91108
Welcome to The Churchill Center with clinics in Fullerton and Arcadia California. "Yes the Doctor also makes home and office calls for established patients". If you prefer an initial face to face or Zoom consultation please visit his website www.TheChurchillCenter.com to schedule an online appointment. Or call 714 519-2121. Dr. Churchill treats the doctor-patient relationship with utmost respect, discretion and attention to detail. He listens to all his patients carefully.
Welcome to The Churchill Center with clinics in Fullerton and Arcadia California. "Yes the Doctor also makes home and office calls for established patients". If you prefer an initial face to face or Zoom consultation please visit his website www.TheChurchillCenter.com to schedule an online appointment. Or call 714 519-2121. Dr. Churchill treats the doctor-patient relationship with utmost respect, discretion and attention to detail. He listens to all his patients carefully.
(657) 837-6803 View (657) 837-6803
Photo of Stacey Kupperman, ND, Naturopath
Stacey Kupperman
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90068
We are a Los Angeles based holistic medical practice focused on providing patients of all ages with a safe, more natural approach to healthcare. Our Naturopathic approach is the "fusion" of the very best aspects of all medicines, including conventional and alternative fields of medicine. Too often, people feel that they must choose between traditional medicine and more natural healing methods. At HealthFusion, we combine both worlds so patients do not have to choose one medical approach at the exclusion of others.
We are a Los Angeles based holistic medical practice focused on providing patients of all ages with a safe, more natural approach to healthcare. Our Naturopathic approach is the "fusion" of the very best aspects of all medicines, including conventional and alternative fields of medicine. Too often, people feel that they must choose between traditional medicine and more natural healing methods. At HealthFusion, we combine both worlds so patients do not have to choose one medical approach at the exclusion of others.
(310) 740-9883 View (310) 740-9883
Photo of Dr. Tediana Torrens, ND, Naturopath
Dr. Tediana Torrens
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90001
I am passionate about helping my clients find true and meaningful healing by identifying and treating the root cause of disease. I love working with individuals that want more than quick fixes and symptom management, as true healing can be a long and non-linear journey. My clients often seek support with hormone balance, menstrual concerns, thyroid disease, insulin resistance, adrenal support, gut and digestive health and mental health. I work with the entire family, from infancy through adulthood, in creating personalized wellness plans and achieving optimal health.
I am passionate about helping my clients find true and meaningful healing by identifying and treating the root cause of disease. I love working with individuals that want more than quick fixes and symptom management, as true healing can be a long and non-linear journey. My clients often seek support with hormone balance, menstrual concerns, thyroid disease, insulin resistance, adrenal support, gut and digestive health and mental health. I work with the entire family, from infancy through adulthood, in creating personalized wellness plans and achieving optimal health.
(341) 999-3701 View (341) 999-3701
Photo of Joy A Bozzo - Dr. Joy A. Bozzo, ND, ND, Naturopath
Dr. Joy A. Bozzo, ND
Naturopath, ND
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Santa Monica, CA 90405
I am a licensed naturopathic doctor in the state of California and an alumnus to National University of Natural Medicine (NUNM) in Portland, Oregon. I am passionate about facilitating healing in each of my patients because I know first hand how powerful and effective naturopathic medicine can be, as it was the catalyst in my own healing journey. It is so refreshing when you can understand the underlying cause of your symptoms and finally feel heard by your doctor. I take time to listen to each of my patients and always strive to uncover the deepest cause of disease.
I am a licensed naturopathic doctor in the state of California and an alumnus to National University of Natural Medicine (NUNM) in Portland, Oregon. I am passionate about facilitating healing in each of my patients because I know first hand how powerful and effective naturopathic medicine can be, as it was the catalyst in my own healing journey. It is so refreshing when you can understand the underlying cause of your symptoms and finally feel heard by your doctor. I take time to listen to each of my patients and always strive to uncover the deepest cause of disease.
(424) 285-1724 View (424) 285-1724
1
How to tell if Naturopathy is right for me?
A Sherman Oaks naturopath is a practitioner of naturopathy, a form of alternative medicine based on the idea that the body has an innate capacity to heal itself. Sherman Oaks Naturopaths improve health by treating the person holistically, tapping a person's own internal body, mind, and spirit resources. Naturopathy comprises a blend of different therapies, all attempting to restore the body to health in the most natural, noninvasive way possible by stimulating the body's own healing powers.

About Sherman Oaks Naturopaths?
Graduates from accredited naturopathic medical schools may use the academic title 'Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine' or 'ND' but there is no standardized professional title in all states (see below). Accredited Naturopathic Doctors in Sherman Oaks generally practice as primary care providers of naturopathic medicine preferring to use a holistic approach with natural remedies such as medicinal herbs and foods rather than conventional drugs.

Insurance and licensing for Naturopaths in Sherman Oaks?
Jurisdictions that regulate the practice of naturopathic medicine and where professionals may acccept insurance include Arizona, New Hampshire (Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine); Oregon, Utah, Washington (Naturopathic Physician); Minnesota (Naturopathic Doctor); Alaska, California (including Traditional Naturopaths), Colorado, Kansas, Maine (Naturopathic Doctor); Connecticut, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho (excluding Traditional Naturopaths), Montana, Vermont (Naturopathic Physician); and North Dakota (Naturopath). In Canada, Manitoba (Doctor of Naturopathy); Saskatchewan , Nova Scotia, British Columbia (Naturopathic Physician); and Ontario, British Columbia (Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine).